A deliberate effort to advance communal knowledge rather than individual learning. The goal of members of an innovative expert community is not (primarily) to learn something (i.e., change their own mental states), but to solve problems, produce new thoughts and objects, and advance communal knowledge (see Bereiter 2002; Scardamalia & Bereiter 2003).


Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Available online

Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2003). Knowledge building. In Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed., pp. 1370-1373). New York: Macmillan Reference, USA. Available online.

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